• adverse childhood experiences

    (ACEs) traumatic events that occur during childhood.

  • alternative provision

    An education institution for students outside of mainstream and special schooling. Includes Pupil Referral Units and annexes to mainstream schools.

  • balance of probabilities

    The legal test for governors to decide what the correct facts are in exclusion reviews. Where there is a dispute about what happened, the governors and independent review panels should decide which is more likely to be correct on the evidence available.


    "Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services": NHS services that assess and treat young people with emotional, behavioural or mental health needs.

  • CCE

    "Childhood Criminal Exploitation": the process of coercing, pressuring or manipulating young people into engaging in criminal activity. Commonly, this is associated with “county lines” drug trafficking.

  • Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services

    (“CAMHS”) are NHS services that assess and treat young people with emotional, behavioural or mental health needs.

  • childhood criminal exploitation

    The process of coercing, pressuring or manipulating young people into engaging in criminal activity, often as a means of labour for organised crime. Commonly, this is associated with “county lines” drug trafficking. 

  • claim for discrimination

    A challenge against an exclusion in the First Tier Tribunal or County Court, alleging that the young person has been discriminated against.

  • clerk to the governors

    A person with responsibility for arranging the governors’ hearing. They may also distribute evidence, type minutes and be your point of contact for the governors’ hearing. Independent of the school's staff.

  • CSE

    "Childhood Sexual Exploitation": the inducement of children to engage in sexual activity through coercion or manipulation.

  • data-controller

    An organisation that holds information about a person. In relation to school files, the school holding the file is the data-controller

  • data-subject

    An individual about whom information is held by an organisation. Schools keep records about a student's education. This makes the student the data-subject.

  • educational psychologist

    A professional based in a clinical team, in a school or in the local authority who works to support young people by identifying additional needs then planning for and providing tailored support.

  • Exclusions Guidance

    Statutory guidance to schools, governors and local authorities on the law and process for excluding, and reviewing exclusions. The 2017 edition of the guidance is the current version.

  • Exclusions Officer

    The person with responsibility for overseeing exclusions at the local education authority. 

  • First Tier Tribunal

    A judicial body that will hear appeals against exclusions if the family believe the young person has been the victim of discrimination on the basis of disability.

  • freedom of information

    The process for obtaining information about a school or other body that is not personal to any individual.

  • FTE

    "Fixed term exclusion": an exclusion for a set number of days, after which the young person will be reintegrated into the school community.

  • High Court

    A Court that hears cases of judicial review. It has a range of powers to order a public body, such as a school or independent review panel, to rectify an error in their decision making.

  • judicial review

    A type of court case in which a judge is asked to review the decision of a public body and correct errors in decision making.

  • lawfulness

    A legal principle. It requires that public bodies such as a school or IRP must only take decisions that they have been given the power to take in law.

  • local authority

    A borough, county or city council that has responsibility for providing education to children in their area.

  • maintained school

    A school that is funded by and under the control of the local authority.

  • maintained schools

    A school that is funded by and under the control of the local authority.

  • managed move

    A process which moves a young person from the registration of one school to the registration of another by agreement between the family and the schools.

  • managed transfer

    A type of managed move in which the local authority guarantees that the young person will not return to the sending school, even If the trial period fails. 

  • panel pack

    A bundle of documents compiled by the headteacher to support their case for exclusion. It will be provided to the governors and the family ahead of the review meeting.

  • permanent exclusion

    An exclusion that results in the young person being removed from the school register and barred from the school’s campus indefinitely.

  • PEX

    Permanent exclusion.

  • public body

    An organisation that performs a public function with public funds. Includes schools (includes academies and free-schools, but not independent or private schools), CAMHS, the local authority and the police.

  • Pupil referral unit

    A type of alternative provision, typically for young people who have been permanently excluded from a mainstream or special school.

  • Rationality

    A legal principle which sets a standard for the decision making of all public bodies. Requires that public bodies include relevant information, disregard irrelevant information and do not make decisions that are unreasonable, given the information available.

  • reasonableness

    In public law, reasonableness is the legal principle that requires a public body to account for all relevant information, and come to a rational decision. Headteachers, governors and IRPs must all be reasonable when reviewing exclusions.

  • recommended reconsideration

    One of the findings the IRPs can make. The effect is to send the decision back to the governors to consider again. There is no penalty if the governors come to the same decision again and uphold the exclusion.

  • safeguarding

    The process of protecting children and vulnerable people from harm.

  • SEN

    Special Educational Needs, a requirement a child has in school without which they will be disadvantaged when compared to their peers.

  • SEN expert

    A person appointed by an IRP to provide expert advice to the panel on SEN issues relevant to the exclusion.

  • subject access request

    The legal process for obtaining information about yourself or a person you are representing that is held by a school or other body.